I am looking for a list of compilers able to generate a gprof output.
gprof is supported beyond gcc. For instance, Sun Studio supports it, as does the berkeley compiler.
Depending upon your platform, you might find that a dynamic run-time tool such as dtrace or oprofile can help.
These are not compilers, but can provide the same kind of data as gprof, and can be applied to existing programs without needing the source or having to recompile them.
oprofile has a mode to directly output gprof compatible data: